Skip to main content

Pidgin English and Creole (engl.)

by Christa Maas
Pidgin English
Pidgin English ( also broken English)  a word used for very simplistic version of English.
Pidgin English is spoken in many countries that used to be English colonies where natives had to find ways to communicate. There are no rules for grammar or spelling and there is no official dictionary. Usually, these languages die.

Example for Pidgin English: I dunno. ( I don´t know)

Forms of Pidgin are spoken in many of West Africa's English-speaking countries. In Nigeria, more than 50 million people speak it, mixing it with phrases of 500 of their own languages. There are variants of Pidgin English in Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone as well.

If Pidgin evolves into a structured language system, it is referred to as Creole. Many Creole languages are based on English, French, Spanish and Portuguese and have often been a result of slavery or evolved in colonies.
English based Creole is spoken in Jamaica, Belize, Costa Rica, Columbia, Nicaragua, West Africa’s English speaking countries. Creole French is spoken in Haiti, French Guyana, the Caribbean, and the Indian Ocean. The Cajun dialect in the region of Louisiana is also a variant of Creole.

Further reading suggestion:
John Holm (Coimbra University, Portugal) 
An introduction to Pidgins and Creoles Cambridge University Press 2000,
The author gives some interesting example of both Pidgin and Creole.


Popular posts from this blog

Relative pronouns: who,when,where,why...(inglês/português)

Relative Pronouns- Pronomes relativos
by Christa Maas
Usamos  Who para pessoas =the woman who lives here (a mulher que mora aqui)
Which ou that para animais/coisas e também em frases completas =the car which I bought (o carro que comprei)
Whose para indicar posse (para pessoas e coisas) =the girl whose sister works here (a menina cuja irmã trabalha aqui)
Whom (formal) = the man to whom I spoke (o homem com quem falei)
When(quando) em vez de in/on which = the day on which I met him= The day when I met him (o dia em que o conheci)
Where (onde) em vez de in/at which = the place at which we met = the place where we met (o lugar onde encontramos)
Why(porque) em vez de for which = the reason for which we met him= the reason why we met him (a razão pela qual nós o conhecemos)

Encurtando cláusulas relativas: 

Podemos substituir o pronome relativo who, which, that (quando é sujeito) por um verbo no particípio (verb + ing) para encurtar a frase e assim ela fica mais fácil de entender:
I told you about the woman w…

E-mail writing and making appointments (inglês/português)

Practical tips for e-mail writing
by Christa Maas

Addressing a client
Always check if it is alright to call a client by his or her first name. In European countries the more formal Mr. Green or Ms. Green is applied. Use Mrs. only if you are sure that a woman is married, otherwise use the non-committal Ms. XYZ Co (address) Attn: Ms Marcela
Dear Ms Marcela |Mr.|Mrs.

      Previous meeting

It was a great pleasure meeting you on (date) and I would like to follow up with our proposal for legal services…

Previous e-mail contact Thank you for your e-mail dated … Thank you for your interest in our law firm In reply to your enquiry I would like to give you some background on our law firm and its services I am writing in reference to…

Offering Help Would you like me to … Please, let me know how I can be of help… I am at your complete disposal for anything you might need. Please, don´t hesitate to ask if you need anything.

Superlatives and Comparatives- Exercises

Superlatives and Comparatives- Exercises

by Christa Maas 1: Give the comparative form for each of the adjectives listed. Russian is a more difficult language than English. I think Maria is happier now than three months ago. Could you open the door, please? It's getting much hotter in this room than I like. interesting ___________ strong ___________ funny ___________ important ___________ beautiful ___________ big ___________ small ___________ polluted ___________ boring ___________ angry ___________ good _____________ bad ______________
2: Give the superlative form for each of the adjectives listed. Brazil is the most beautiful country in South America. His biggest dream is to buy a yacht. He is the happiest person in our office. interesting ___________ strong ___________ funny ___________ important ___________ beautiful ___________ big ___________ small ___________ polluted ___________ boring ___________ angry ___________