Sunday, May 15, 2011

uso do verbo do como verbo principal e verbo auxiliar

O verbo “do”

O verbo “do” é usado como verbo principal ou verbo auxiliar. De modo geral, usamos o verbo “do” como auxiliar nas frases negativas e frases interrogativas do presente e passado e com a maioria dos verbos. Porém há exceções: no caso de frases com “be”, have got, will e “modal verbs” (verbos modais) São eles: can, could, shall, should, would, may, might e must.

Conjugação do verbo “do” como verbo principal:


Frase positiva
Frase negativa
Frase Interrogativa
I do
You do

He does

She does

It does

We do

You  do

They do
I do not (I don´t
You do not (you don´t)
He does  not (he doesn´t)
She does not (she doesn´t)
It does not (It doesn´t)
We do not ( we don´t)
You do not(you don´t)
They do not (they don´t)


Do I?
Do you?

Does he?
Does she?
Does it?
Do we?
Do you?

Do they?

Obs: na frase positiva nas  frases interrogativas no presente não existe forma contraída do verbo. A forma contraída e somente usada no inglês informal


Past Simple ( passado)


Frase positiva
Frase negativa
Frase Interrogativa
I did
You did

He did

She did

It did
We did
You did

They did
I did not ( I didn´t)
You did not (you didn´t)
He did not (he didn´t)
She did not (she didn´t)
It did not (It didn´t)
We did not ( we didn´t)
You did not(you didn´t)
They did not (they didn´t)


Did I?
Did you?

Did he?
Did she?
Did it?
Did we?
Did you?

Did they?


Obs: no passado a forma contraída do verbo não existe em frases positivas. A forma contraída e somente usada no inglês informal


Exemplos de frases usando o verbo “do “como verbo auxiliar:


Frase positiva sem auxiliar
Frase negativa
Frase Interrogativa
I buy cars.

You buy cars.

He buys cars.

She buys cars.

It buys cars.

We buy cars.

You buy cars.

They buy cars.


I do not (don´t) buy cars.
You do not (don´t) buy cars.
He does not (doesn´t) buy cars.
She does not (doesn´t) buy cars.
It does not (doesn´t) buy cars.
We do not (don´t) buy cars.
You do not (don´t) buy cars.
They do not (don´t) buy cars.


Do I buy cars?

Do you buy cars?

Does he buy cars?

Does she buy cars?

Does it buy cars?

Do we buy cars?

Do you buy cars?

Do they buy cars?

Obs: em frases interrogativas no presente não existe forma contraída do verbo. A forma contraída e somente usada no inglês informal


Past Simple ( passado)


Frase positiva sem auxiliar
Frase negativa
Frase Interrogativa
I bought cars.

You bought cars.

He bought cars.

She bought cars.

It bought cars.

We bought cars.

You bought cars.

They bought cars.


I did not (didn´t) buy cars.
You did not (didn´t) buy cars.
He did not (didn´t) buy cars.
She did not (didn´t) buy cars.
It did not (didn´t) buy cars.
We did not (didn´t) buy cars.
You did not (didn´t) buy cars.
They did not (didn´t) buy cars.


Did I buy cars?

Did you buy cars?

Did he buy cars?

Did she buy cars?

Did it buy cars?

Did we buy cars?

Did you buy cars?

Did they buy cars?

Obs: em frases interrogativas no passado não existe forma contraída do verbo. A forma contraída e somente usada no inglês informal





Exemplos de frases com o verbo “do” como verbo principal:

She does her homework. (Ela faz a lição de casa)
They do the washing up. ( Eles lavam a louça)
We do it every day. (Nos fazemos isto todos os dias)

Porém, no negativo se usa o verbo auxiliar “do”, sendo que nestas frases o verbo “do” é o verbo auxiliar e também o verbo principal ( em azul) :

She doesn´t do her homework ( Ela não faz a sua lição de casa).
Does she do her homework? (Ela faz a sua lição de casa?)

They don´t do the washing up. (Eles não lavam a louça.)
Do they do the washing up?(Eles lavam a louça?)

We don´t do it every day.
Do we do it every day?

A maior dúvida que o aluno tem é quando não usar o do. Como já havia explicado, não usamos o “do” como verbo auxiliar
a)      nas frases com “be”,

I am not a teacher./Am I a teacher? (Eu sou professor/Eu não sou professor)
Is she  OK?(Elá está O.K?)
Are they hungry? (Eles estão com fome?)

b)      nas frases com have got,
I haven´t got any money. (Eu não tenho dinheiro)
Have you got a car?( Você tem carro?)

c)       nas frases com will ( futuro) ou se a frase já tem outro auxiliar como “have” ou “be”.
Will you meet me? ( Você se encontrará comigo?
No, I won´t meet you.(Não, eu não vou encontrar com você)
They aren´t sleeping.(Eles não estão dormindo)
Have they been here yet? (Eles já estiveram aqui?)

d)      nas frases com os “modal verbs” (verbos modais)  can, could, shall, should, would, may, might e must.
Can you give him a message? (Pode le dar um recado?)
I couldn´t do that.( Não poderia fazer isto)
Shall we meet at 8 o´clock?( Vamos encontrar as oito horas?)
You shouldn´t do that!(Você não deveria fazer isto).
Would you give me that book, please? (Poderia me dar este livro, por favor?)

I may/might not be here tomorrow.
(Talvez eu não esteja aqui amanhã)
You must use a seatbelt.
(Você deve usar o cinto de segurança)

Não use  “do” em frases interrogativas com “who” (quem), se você está perguntando pelo sujeito:

sujeito
Paulo     works at Microsoft. ( Paulo trabalha na Microsoft).
Who works at Microsoft?(Quem trabalha na Microsoft? Resposta: Paulo)

Veja a diferença:
                              objeto
Paulo works for  Microsoft. (Paulo trabalha para a Microsoft).
Who does Paulo work for? (Para quem o Paulo trabalha? Resposta: Microsoft)

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